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Brief Introduction to Biotechnology


Whenever a student or anyone hears about Biotechnology, they start thinking about some questions like What is meant by Biotechnology? How is this new branch of engineering beneficial to society? How it is different from Biology? etc. Here in this article, students will get all the answers about Biotechnology.

Biotechnology is the revolutionary wave in the field of life science based on the basics of science and technology. It deals with the application of biological science to utilize biological organisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, etc., biochemical processes, and their systems for manufacturing or producing beneficial products for humans such as drugs, vaccines, foods, etc.

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History of Biotechnology

The term Biotechnology was first time described in the year 1920 by the Leeds City Council (U.K.) published in a bulletin of the Bureau of Biotechnology. They described Biotechnology in their article and applications of microbes in the leather industry for pest control. They set up the Biotechnology Institute in Leeds Yorkshire with the Bureau of Biotechnology named.

Biotechnology is not a new science actually it is a very old science. Its oldest process is microbial fermentation which is traced before 6000 BC for the preparation of wine and beer by using yeast and describing its procedure. Next in 4000 BC with the help of yeast-leavened bread was prepared. But the Biotechnology present form traced to the 1970s when it became a separate branch and started utilizing molecular biology techniques in the year 1975 first hybridomas were generated which can produce monoclonal antibodies.

Biotechnology: An Interdisciplinary Subject

Biotechnology is a multidisciplinary subject that includes multiple subjects of biological science and engineering, such as biochemistry, microbiology, genetic engineering, molecular biology, immunology, enzymology, etc. science and chemical engineering, heat, and mass transfer operations, fermentation, bioprocess engineering, etc as engineering subjects. For the complete upstream-to-downstream processing, an understanding of all subjects’ knowledge is necessary.

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Biotechnology Scope and Applications

Biotechnology has applications in many areas but the major areas in which Biotechnology contributes are industrial, health care, pharmaceutical, agriculture, environmental, and food processing.

Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary science that includes many subjects including biology as a base subject and subjects like chemistry, mathematics, physics, computer, and engineering. Its application increases our safe and secure life by providing various medical health benefits and better foods than traditional food.

Biotechnology is used in various crop production which is the ultimate source of our food, its storage, value-added processing, post-harvest management, production of bakery, and beverage products. Biotechnology develops new drugs and vaccines for human health benefits.

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Biotechnology does not provide only good products it also provides products cheaper than other ways if used in large-scale production. The major fields in which Biotechnology contributed more are.

  • Agriculture and animal husbandry
  • Environment
  • Industrial research and development
  • Medicine and Healthcare
They include the following areas of

  • Assisted reproductive technologies
  • Biosensor
  • Bioremediation
  • Bioinformatics, including genomics and proteomics
  • Biological warfare
  • DNA vaccines
  • Enzyme engineering and technology
  • Gene Therapy
  • Immunotechnologies
  • Nanobiotechnology
  • New DNA technologies
  • New drug-delivery systems
  • Nutraceuticals
  • Organ transplantation
  • Photosynthetic efficiency
  • Plant-based drugs
  • Peptide synthesis
  • Production of useful materials
  • Production of new materials
  • Processing of low-grade ores using microorganisms
  • Photosynthetic efficiency
  • Rational drug design
  • Stem cell techniques
  • Tissue culture

Biotechnology is a research-oriented field. It has applications in various areas such as medicine, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, industry, and the environment. It is one of the fastest-growing fields today. In medicine, it has helped in improving the accuracy of diagnosis and treatment of diseases. It is also applied to the development of drugs and vaccines, improved food items, control of pollution, and waste management. It is also exploring new sources of energy.

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Role of Biotechnologists in Our Life

The Biotechnologist should understand the codes of life wrapped in the turns of DNA of everyone. A Biotechnologist has to utilize his skills and learning technologies from different disciplines of science towards the desired characteristics and express good qualities for improving human life. For achieving this Biotechnology must have deep knowledge of Genetic Engineering and Molecular Biology techniques.

Biotechnology Job Opportunities

In Biotechnology, different job opportunities exist in the agriculture, fertilizer, and pharmaceutical processing industries in the private and public sectors. The Research Institutes and leading pharmaceutical companies are employing Biotechnologists. They can find employment in research laboratories run by government universities and institutes of technology as well as in the corporate sector.

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In India Biotechnology is in the developing stage. Biotechnology would take a long time to establish in India.

Basic Books on Biotechnology

If you want to study in deep and understand Biotechnology's different areas and scope in detail then we can recommend some basic books on Biotechnology that you should study.

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