purple biotechnology

As Biotechnological activities extensively increasing in human life, it also causes many issues related to ethical, social, and economical factors.  The use of biotechnological techniques in living organisms also has been criticized by many sociologists, philosophers, religious scholars, scientists, and economists.  Arising these issues caused the need to formation Violet Biotechnology, which would deal with and regulated these issues related to Biotechnology. It provides the platform for the regulation and resolving of all problems related to Biotechnology.

Violet Biotechnology is the legal branch of Biotechnology that encompasses intellectual property rights, patents, laws, ethical issues, biosecurity, philosophic issues, biosafety, and legal issues. Violet biotechnology has to deal with all ethical, moral, and patent issues developed by the modification of genes in living organisms, plants, and animals.

Purple Biotechnology mainly related to legal and regulatory issues in biotechnology. While ethical issues, biosafety, biosecurity, philosophic issues related to Biotechnology fall under Violet Biotechnology. Purple Biotechnology majorly focuses on the making of rules, laws, and publishing patents related to biotechnology. But majorly Purple and Violet Biotechnology considered the same area of Biotechnology.

You Should Read: What are the colors of Biotechnology?

History of Violet Biotechnology

Getting patents on biological techniques is not a new story. Microbiologists and scientists already got patents on the organisms for the production of biological products through microorganisms.

Patenting on living organisms not new it is about 148 years old. For the first time, Louis Pasteur gets the US Patent No. 141.072 in the year 1873 for the organic germ-free Yeast as the article of manufacture. Later in 1975, the German Federal Supreme Court delivered a judgment in Baker’s yeast case that 'Microorganisms are patentable'.

Violet Biotechnology comes into existence when the US Supreme Court gives a decision that genetically modified microorganisms can be patented on June 16th, 1980.

Need of Violet Biotechnology

Biotechnological techniques exploit the application of biological organisms for the benefit of human beings. Biotechnology techniques now used in various sectors such as agriculture, food, medical, industry, environment, etc. Production of disease-free plants, new varieties of plants, new diagnostic kits, enzymes, antibodies, vaccines, etc. Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology is majorly used in the medical field for human health than in agriculture and industrial applications.

Biotechnology develops new technologies that use the techniques of genetic manipulation to eliminate genetic diseases from crops and animals and create improved crop varieties and farm animals. But all these also related to some issues and dangers that accompany them.

Biotechnology companies want to take patents for making huge profits. So without understanding the deep futuristic issues allowing patents can raise many ethical, biosafety, legal, and policy questions in near future. So the main areas of concern of Violet Biotechnology is listed below.

  • Patent Publications
  • Regulation and compliance
  • IPR Protection in Agriculture
  • Impact of IPRs Protection on Plant Varieties
  • Stem Cell Research
  • Genetically Modified Crops
  • IPR Education in Life Science
  • Patent Claims
  • Protection of Plant Breeders’ Rights
  • IPRs Policy Regime
  • Regulation and compliance
  • Ethical and constitutional implications
  • Side-effects of transgenic foods on human health
  • Negative effects on the environment
  • Misuse of human genetic engineering
  • Abuse of animals

Major Areas of Violet Biotechnology

purple biotechnology examples

Violet or Purple Biotechnology works in various areas of Biotechnology but it has major concern related to ethical and moral issues generated by the modification of genes of organisms and thus leads to problematic issues related to patent rights. Violet Biotechnology can be broadly divided into three broad categories.

  1. IPRs in Biotechnology
  2. Legal and Regulatory issues in Biotechnology
  3. Ethical and Philosophical Issues in Biotechnology

1. IPRs in Biotechnology

Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) are an important feature in all innovation-based systems. Patents and copyrights work as catalysts for innovation in knowledge-intensive sectors like biotechnology. IPRs refer to those products that are developed by using the human intellect that has commercial value and needs to protect by legal protection.

Since research in biotechnology is expensive so there is a need for an award that takes risk of innovation in the biotechnology field. This is a very crucial aspect of cost recovery for biotechnology firms that invested huge money in innovation. Patents are very crucial to the innovative R&D start-ups biotechnology firms because it is the only assets for those to recover their investment in the research.

2. Legal and Regulatory issues in Biotechnology

The major elements for regulation on biotechnology include risk analysis, laboratory control, environmental release, traceability, monitoring measures, and socio-economic considerations. To proper regulation of Biotechnological techniques in the world, there are various types of regulatory approaches adopted by the countries on biotechnology.

The United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a policy statement for the biotechnological products that it considers to be as safe as conventional food and needs pre-market approval only necessary under certain conditions in the year 1992.

In India, there is a BRAI bill to regulate the Biotechnology Industry. Before the bill, India has no proper bill to regulate the Genetic Industry in India. There were various laws and act to regulate the Biotechnology industry similar to other industries like Environment Protection Act, EXIM Policy, Intellectual Property Rights, Recombinant DNA Safety Guidelines, National Seed Policy, Biological Diversity Act, etc. After proper analysis and research with clear provision Government of India passed the Biotechnology Regulatory Authority of India bill or BRAI in the year 2013.

3. Ethical and Philosophical Issues in Biotechnology

Every area has ethics like business ethics, environmental ethics, military ethics, legal ethics, medical ethics, etc. Similarly, Biotechnology has also ethics and popularly called Bioethics. Bioethics' main concern is to maintain the planet's ecology with the implementation of advanced scientific manipulations in nature. The central issues in bioethics are research related to human subjects, organ transplantation, genetics, death and dying, and reproduction.

Ethical evaluation of biotechnological interventions depend first on a good understanding of the science behind these interventions, and second on balancing the risks and benefits of such interventions. Furthermore, the power of new molecular techniques to manipulate life, inserting genes of one species into genes of another species, and otherwise redirecting living organisms for specific human purposes, both in captivity and in the wild, is about the appropriate role.

For example, the use of genetically modified bacteria by gene engineering to produce products like insulin, enzymes, antibodies, etc. in a laboratory or commercial plant is different from the release of genetically modified live bacteria into the open natural environment. 

Try to Solve: Quiz on Colors of Biotechnology

Conclusion

Violet or Purple Biotechnology is the only branch that not works for the production of Biotechnological products. It deals mainly with Intellectual Property Rights and its publications in the Biotechnology sector. It encouraging new biotechnology inventions, providing patent right in biotechnology inventions studies ethical issues, social aspects related to the research work in Biotechnology.

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