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Colourful Types of Biotechnology

colors of biotechnology
Various Colors of Biotechnology

Biotechnology has different branches that are applicable in various fields. According to applications in various fields of Biotechnology, it is classified with color codes to identify them clearly. Biotechnology scholars or students must know about the colors of Biotechnology and its fields of applications in various industries.

Biotechnology technologies are now used today in almost every field like agriculture, medicine, environmental, pharmaceutical, food, industrial products, and biological weapons. That makes it multicolor in nature like a rainbow.

Biotechnology is a very colorful branch of science that is interdisciplinary in nature. Biotechnology involves the manipulation of living organisms and their genetic components for the production of commercial products for human benefit.

Biotechnology applications used in our daily life since ancient times but today due to advancements in Biotechnological techniques and the involvement of other branches of science subjects like physics, chemistry, mathematics, engineering, computer application, and information technology, it is used in almost every field.

By using biochemical, biophysical, molecular biological techniques, engineering, and, bioinformatics, information technology, Biotechnologists are able to develop vaccines, new drugs, diagnostics, food products, cosmetics, agriculture, and industrially useful chemicals.

You Should Solve: Subject-Wise MCQs on Biotechnology

Color Code Classification of Biotechnology

Due to the vast application of Biotechnology in various fields like medical, agriculture, dairy, textile, food, and many more industries, Biotechnology can be classified using a color code. PaweĊ‚ Kafarski, who is the Faculty of Chemistry in the Department of Bioorganic Chemistry in 2012 classifies Biotechnology by using ten different color codes.

On the basis of the application field, the colorful types of biotechnology are Green, Red, White, Gold, Grey, Blue, Yellow, Violet, Brown, and Dark. We listed here the colors of Biotechnology and their application areas.


Color Code

Biotechnology Branch/ Field



Agriculture Biotechnology



Medical Biotechnology



Industrial Biotechnology






Environment Protection Biotechnology



Marine (Aquatic) Biotechnology



Food Nutritional Biotechnology



IPR, Ethics and Biosafety



Arid & Desert Biotechnology



Bioterrorism, Biological Weapons

Table: Types of Biotechnology Colors

1. Green Biotechnology

Green Biotechnology includes techniques that are directly related to the agriculture field. By using plant Biotechnology, tissue culture, bio-pesticides, and bio-fertilizers applications reducing the dependency on chemical or mechanical techniques. The development of new crops by modifications in genes, micro-propagation, and tissue culture falls under this category.

It is a major branch of Biotechnology that is used on a large scale in agriculture and the Agri-industrial field. Green Biotechnology covers agriculture, the environment, bioenergy, etc. It provides solutions to the agriculture, horticulture, and domestic animal breeding processes.

2. Red Biotechnology

biotechnology color code

Medical or Pharmaceutical biotechnology-related fields fall under Red Biotechnology. It includes the production of drugs, vaccines, antibiotics, medicines, and health-related items.

It is related to the development of new drugs, treatment techniques, biosimilars, hormones, stem cells, monoclonal antibodies, siRNA, diagnostic techniques, gene therapy, stem cells, genetic testing, etc.

It is the second most popular field of Biotechnology in which large-scale research institutes, hospitals, academic institutes, and commercial industries work together for the development of new techniques, drugs, artificial organs, medical diagnostic kits, regenerative therapies, vaccines, etc.

3. White Biotechnology

colors of biotechnology

Industrial Biotechnology works fall under the White Biotechnology field. Application of Biotechnological techniques such as biocatalysts in industrial processes, production of biodegradable polymers, production of industrially useful enzymes and microorganisms, and production of wine, bread, or beer.

It is the fastest-growing biotechnology field that uses microorganisms in chemical production, plastics, textiles, biofuels, cosmetics, paper, textiles, tanning, and food products.

4. Gold Biotechnology

colors of biotechnology

Gold Biotechnology which is now known as Bioinformatics, deals with all types of computational biology techniques that include computer science, chip technology, Nanobiotechnology, etc. Bioinformatics is the most advanced form of Biotechnology that is used in analyzing biological data by computer applications.

All biological data are available from the sequencing of various genomes of different organisms used in various areas like genomics, structural genomics, proteomics for developing new drugs or vaccines, phylogenetic analysis, etc.

5. Grey Biotechnology

Grey Biotechnology also known as Environmental Biotechnology that related to environmental applications and focuses on the solutions to environmental problems. It includes bioremediation, waste management, sewage treatments, etc. It works on maintaining the biodiversity of flora and fauna in existing nature. It protects from overexploitation of natural resources and reduces pollution in the environment.

It refers to the use of Biotechnological techniques for the removal of contaminants from the environment such as the use of microorganisms for waste management, plastic decaying, soil treatment (bioremediation), oil spillage, and radioactive contamination.

6. Blue Biotechnology

colors of biotechnology

It is also called marine biotechnology, in which marine resources are exploited for the formation of products by using various Biotechnological techniques. Sea and Oceans are the main fields of Blue Biotechnology. They have a large number of Biodiversity and bioresources that can be used for human welfare.

Utilization of aquatic resources like fishes, aquatic plants, shellfish, sponges, whale fishes, etc. for the production of food, medicines, beverages, fabrics, plastics, and personal care products that are used for human welfare by applying Biotechnological techniques falls under the Blue Biotechnology. Not only sea and ocean but fresh-water rivers aquatic resource utilization also comes under this category of Biotechnology.

7. Yellow Biotechnology

Yellow Biotechnology refers to nutritional biotechnology that is related to using Biotechnological techniques for the development of nutrition-rich products. It includes the research and development of food products like wine, cheese, and beer by fermentation. Under this category control of insects and changing their gene for agricultural and medicinal purposes is also included.

Under the yellow biotechnology improvement of food products nourishing quality increases by fortified with health-promoting additives. Golden Rice is one of the good examples of it.

It is achieved by using enzymatic and microbial genetic modification processes to eliminate allergens and unwanted components that cause its intolerance and the addition of nutrients adding genes for its fortification with health-promoting components.

8. Brown Biotechnology

biotechnology color code

Brown biotechnology is a powerful toolbox for solving the challenges of arid lands. Biotechnological techniques such as versatile crops, bio-fertilization, phytoremediation, desalination, and genetically modified plants are used in arid regions.

Management of deserts, arid lands, and dry and saline soils for growing high-valued commercial crops in Africa-like places falls under Brown biotechnology. Using Biotechnological techniques like GMO technology, high-quality hybrid seeds, and disease-free, less water-consuming crops growing in Sahara desert-type areas is very beneficial for people who live in these regions.

9. Violet Biotechnology

Intellectual property rights, laws, ethical issues, biosafety, biosecurity, philosophic issues, and legal issues related to Biotechnology fields fall under Violet Biotechnology. It started in 1980 when genetically modified microorganisms (GMOs) had a first-time patent was started.

Violet or Purple Biotechnology includes protecting and encouraging new biotechnology inventions by patenting laws, providing detailed research and analysis on the new publications on biotechnology research, ensuring the IPRs of Biotechnology companies,  scientists, and research institutes, and solving any conflicts raised related to these.

10. Dark Biotechnology

Biotechnology has also dark sides that are used against human welfare. All Biotechnology techniques that are used against all living things and human welfare fall under Dark Biotechnology. Use of Biotechnological techniques in terrorism, biological weapons, biowarfare, and the development of toxins that are harmful to all types of living organisms like humans, animals, and plants.

Development of any Biohazardous things by applying Biotechnological techniques and using microorganisms falls under the Dark Biotechnology field. Microorganisms like viruses, bacteria, or any other biological agents are used as bio-weapons for any individual or mass public, or for the nation.

You Should Try to Solve: Quiz on Colors of Biotechnology


Gene manipulation technique of living organisms for the commercial-scale production of products makes Biotechnology a wide range of applications in various areas of research such as agriculture, medicine, and industrial products. Red (Medical), Green (Agriculture), and White (Industrial) are the main colors of Biotechnology that are used broadly for human welfare.

Important Books on Biotechnology

If you want to study in deep and understand Biotechnology's different areas and scope in detail then we can recommend some books on Biotechnology that you should study.

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