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Role of Palaeontology in Biotechnology

importance of paleontology

Palaeontology is the study of the history of life on the Earth by using fossils or traces of ancient organisms. It studies all types of fossils like bones, teeth, shells of organisms, classifies them, and studies relationships with each other, and finds out the ancestors of currently living organisms.

Palaeontology is different from Archaeology, it is between the biology and geology subjects that use different science subjects like Chemistry, Biochemistry, Mathematics, and Engineering for the study of fossils and their traces. Palaeontology is a popular science subject that plays a very important role in Biotechnology to study the evolutionary history of life by determining the evolutionary identity of present living and past organisms.

In Biology, Taxonomy refers to the classification of invertebrates and the groups are known as Taxa and arranged in a hierarchical system in which their relationships are represented with each other. The evolution theory of Palaeontology based on the various disciplines of science like chemistry, biology, genetics, comparative anatomy, embryology, and population biology.

Importance of Palaeontology in Biotechnology

Under Biotechnology, Bioinformatics is the major subject that provides information related the biological science. Bioinformatics mainly uses biological macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins sequencing data for storage, retrieval, manipulation, distribution and predicts the interpreted results by using computer applications. It uses computer applications and algorithms because genomic data of various organisms’ analyses are highly repetitive or mathematically very complex.

Molecular Palaeontology is a very important branch of Palaeontology that refers to the analysis of DNA, RNA, proteins, carbohydrates, or lipids, etc. that are extracted from the fossils and traces of ancient human, animal, and plant remaining parts.

In Molecular Palaeontology by using various molecular biological analytical techniques such as DNA isolation, amplification and sequencing scientists of DNAs found in fossils, Palaeontologists quantify the level of relation between any two organisms by phylogenetic analysis.

Phylogenetic is purely depends on the study of the evolutionary history of living organisms by using tree-like diagrams to represent their relations with each other. Palaeontology provides essential raw data for classifying ancient organisms, Biological classification, Phylogenetic nomenclature, and Evolutionary taxonomy.

Molecular data of DNA or protein sequences provides evolutionary perspectives of existing organisms. With the help of comparative analysis of the fossils on the basis of molecular analysis and Phylogenetic tree analysis, we find the evolution of the particular organism that are related to each other.

Genes are the main genetic material that accumulates mutations over the time period and causes the change in phenotypes of the organisms. These mutations can be studied from the fossils of the different organisms easily by applying Molecular Palaeontology techniques.

Techniques used in Molecular Palaeontology

Molecular Palaeontology is a rich field of science that interrelated to various science and provides various important information related to ecologies of the ancient time, about the evolution of life, and the evolution of humans. By using Molecular Palaeontology techniques we get more accurate data’s.

  • Biomarkers
  • Molecular Dating
  • Palaeoecology
  • Systematics
  • Mitochondrial DNA Analysis
  • Nuclear Genome Analysis

Fossils of ancient organisms, like bones, shells, imprints, tracks, and biogenic macromolecules are studied by various methods and Biotechnological techniques. Biotechnological techniques like PCR, immunochemical reactions (ELISA or Radioimmunoassay) techniques and other chemical or physical techniques like various types of chromatography, NMR and IR spectroscopy is used to study fossils of organisms.

Every Biotechnology scholar learns Molecular Phylogenetic which is a very important topic of Molecular Biology, Bioinformatics and Genetic Engineering subjects.  Molecular Phylogenetic is purely based on Palaeontology studies. After learning Molecular Phylogenetic every Biotechnology student can easily understand the role of Palaeontology in Biotechnology.

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